Abstracts (Cox's Note: The following variants were noted after the earlier sheets of the volume were in the press; wherefore abstracts of them could not be included in Part I. The corresponding tabulations will, however, be found in bibliographical order in Part II.)
Helpful animals occur in Nos. 3,
4, 5, 6
(bird), 11, 13,
16 (task-performing birds), 21,
23 (bird), 24,
30, 31 (trans.
mother), 34, 35,
37 (bird = trans. mother), 39,
40 (dog, who exacts heroine's children
in return), 42, 45,
46, 49 (task-performing
bird), 51 (bird), 52,
54, 58 (t.-p.
bird), 59, 61,
62 (t.-p. birds), 64
(t.-p. bird), 65, 68,
71, 78 (birds),
80 (bird), 82,
85, 87 (t.-p.
birds), 88, 89,
90 (fish = trans. prince), 92,
100 (eel), 102
(trans. mother), 109, 110,
112 (pike), 113,
115 (t.-p. bird), 117,
(t.-p. birds), 127 (trans. mother), 162,
(snake = sister), 227, 228,
(pike), 240, 242,
(t.-p. birds), 246,
See Mr. Lang's remarks on the "Savage Idea that Animals supernaturally aid Persons they favour" (Introd. to Grimm's Household Tales, lxxiii). The Golden Ram aids Phrixus and Helle against their stepmother, Apoll. Rhod., i, 256 (see Mr. Lang's Perrault, xcv). For further examples of the helpful animal (distinguished. from the "grateful beast") in folk-tales, cf. Athanas'ev, iv, No. 11; vii, No. 18; Am. F.-L. Journal, ii, 89 ff.; Mad. d'Aulnoy, "Chatte Blanche"; Bleek, Hottentot Fables, p. 60; Callaway, Zulu Tales, pp. 97, 230; Campbell, i, 101; ii, 265-75, No. xli; Casalis, Basutos, p. 309; Castren, Samoyedische Marchen, p. 164; Crane, 29, 327, 348; Dasent (3rd ed.), pp. 155, 266, 272, 291, 302, 382; Day, Folk-tales of Bengal, "The Match-making Jackal"; Deulin, Contes de ma Mere l'Oye, pp. 205, 265, 266; F.-L. Rec., iii, 44, 185, 214; F.-L. Journal, i, 236 (Malagasy); vi, 69, 163; Frere, O. D. D., "The Brahman", "The Tiger and the Six Judges"; Friis, Lappiske Eventyr, pp. 52 ff., 63, 140, 170; Gonzenbach, ii, 243; Grimm, Nos. 15, 63, and notes; and Nos. 127, 130; Gubernatis, Z. M., i, 193; ii, 134, 136, 157; Hahn, Nos. 45, 65; Ind. Evangel. Rev., October 1886 (Santal story by Campbell); Kalewala, Runes 15, 530; Kletke, Marchensaal, "Gagliuso"; Lang, Custom and Myth, "A Far-travelled Tale"; Magyar Folk-tales, pp. i, 207, 303; Mallet, North. Ant., p. 436; Maspero, p. 4, "The Two Brothers"; Naake, Slavonic Tales, p. 133; Payne, 1001 Nights, iv, 10, "Abou Mahommed"; Pentamerone, ii, 4; Perrault, "Le Maître Chat"; Ralston, R. F. T., pp. 133, 134, 149, 167, 173, 183, 184, 231, 260, 286, 296; Songs of the Russian People, pp. 169, 180, 182; and "Puss in Boots" in Nineteenth Cent., January 1883; Revue Celt., iii, p. 365; 1870, p. 373; Rev. des Langues Romanes, iii, 396; Rink, Eskimo, No. 1; Rivière, Contes Kabyles, pp. 99 ff.; Satuja ja Tarinoita, i, 119, 138; ii, 36; Schiefner, Avar Tales, "Boukoutchi Khan"; S. Af. F-L. Journal, March 1880; Steere, Swahili Tales, "Sultan Darai"; Stokes, p. 180; Straparola, xi, 1; Temple, Leg. of the Punjab, 272 ff., 354 ff.; Theal, Kaffir Folk-lore, pp. 37, 53 ff., 56, 63, 86, 169; Thorpe, pp. 64, 114, 295, 296, 353; Vernaleken, "The Dog and the Yellow Hammer"; Webster, p. 182; Wide Awake Stories, p. 205.
Compare the friendly crocodile, who comes to the aid of the fugitive heir in the Bantu legend, and is, in consequence, held sacred for ever after. (Folk-Lore, iii, 340-341.)
"A bird of the air shall carry the voice, and that which hath wings shall tell the matter," Eccles. x, 20. "What bird has brought that to your ears (Westphal. "wecker vaugel heft dik dat inner auren ehangen?" Slennerhinke, p. 8.) The Bohemians say, "to learn it of the bird" (dowedeti se po ptacku), or as we say, "a little bird told me." Modern Greek and Servian folk-songs not unfrequently open with birds on the wing, wheeling this way and that, holding a conversation. W. Muller's Samlung., i, 66, 102; ii, 164, 178, 200; Vuk Karajich, 3, 326. The heathens of the Teuton race equally regarded birds as messengers of the gods and heralds of important tidings.
Two ravens sit on the shoulders of Odin, and whisper in his ear whatever they see and hear (Grimm, T. M., 147), Apollo, too, had a raven messenger, who informed him when Korônis was unfaithful; and Aristeas accompanied him as a raven (Herod., iv, 15). Porphyry tells us the Magians called the priests of the Sun-god ravens. A raven is perched aloft on the mantle of Mithras, the Sun-god. The eagle is the messenger of Jove. The Holy Ghost, as a dove, descended upon Christ at His baptism (Luke, iii, 22), and rested upon Him. [Greek name] (John. i, 32). The dove is generally contrasted with the raven, which, like the wolf, the Christians applied to the Evil One. In Goethe's Faust the witch asks Mephistopheles: "Wo sind denn eure beiden Raben?" But three ravens fly with St. Benedict, and St. Gregory is escorted by three flying ravens (Paul. Diac., i, 26). Noah employed both a raven and a dove to bring him tidings (Gen. viii, 7). King Oswald's raven flies to his shoulder and arm. He talks to it, and kneels before it (cf. Zingerle, Oswalt, p. 67). A dove sits on the head and shoulder of a boy at Trier (Greg. Tur., 10, 29); one perches three times on the head of St. Severus (Myst., i, 226-7), another settles on St. Gregory's shoulder (i, 104). A great deal is said about doves resting on people's shoulders in the Middle Ages. When Basil the Great was preaching, Ephraem saw on his right shoulder a white dove, which put words of wisdom in his mouth (Gregor. Nyssen. encom. Ephraemi). When Gregory the Great was expounding the last vision of Ezekiel, a white dove sat upon his head, and now and then put its beak in his mouth (Paul. Diac., Vita, p. 14). Augustine and Thomas Aquinas are portrayed with a white dove perched on their shoulders, or hovering over their heads. Doves sit on Gold-Mariken's shoulders (Mullenhoff, 403); and in the story of "The Three Languages" two doves settle on the Pope's shoulder, and tell him in his ear all that he has to do (Grimm, No. 33). Doves perch on the heroine's shoulders in Nos. 37 and 62 of this collection; and three starlings in No. 27.
In a Russian story from Athanas'ev's collection (Leger, Contes pop. Slaves, p. 235), a nightingale perches on the hero's shoulder and predicts tempest and pirates. In a Slovenic fairy-tale somebody had a raven (vrana) who was all-knowing (vedezh), and used to tell him everything when he came home (Murko, Sloven. deutsches Wortb., Gratz, 1833, p. 696). A white dove descends singing on the head of St. Devy, and instructs him; and on other occasions flies down to make known the will of heaven (Buhez Santez Nonn., Paris, 1837, p. 117). See Grimm, T. M., p. 148. The wood-pecker prophesied to the Sabines in the grove by Matiena (Strabo, v, 240). In the Helgaqvioa (Saem., 140-1), a "wise bird" is introduced, talking and prophesying to men, but insists on a temple and sacrifices before he will tell them more. But more especially is the gift of prophecy conceded to the cuckoo (upon which see Grimm, T. M., 675-681). An angel is sent in the shape of a bird (see Gudrun and Sv. Vis., i, 232-4-5).
A crow brings ill-news to Athena as she is fetching a mountain from Pallene to fortify the Acropolis, causing her to drop her burden, which remains as Mt. Lykabeltos (Antigoni Carystii hist. mirab, cap. 12, Lips., 1791, p. 22). A jay-bird is the Devil's messenger (Am. Folk-lore Journal, ii, 299-300; see also ib., p. 187, where a woodpecker reports a crime he has witnessed). A crow sings from the tree to Jarl's son, the grandson of Heimdal, Kon, urging him to mount his steed and fight against men; and the crow seeks to awaken his ambition or jealousy (see Rydberg, Teut. Myth., p. 94).
Birds betray the false bride in the Zulu tale (Callaway, p. 121), as in Nos. 4 (raven), 7 (cock), 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 (doves), 25, 26, 30, 31, 33, 35, 37, 38 (crow), 39, 42, 46, 47, 54, 57, 59, 61 (magpie), 62, 63, 65, 70, 73, 77, 78, 79, 81, 83, 85, 86, 88, 93, 94, 99, 100 (parrot), 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 123, 127, 128, 151, 243, 249, 263, 290 (cuckoo). (The role of witness is filled by a dog in Nos. 21, 49, 71, 125, 245, 301, and by a cat in Nos. 229, 237, 239, 240). The talking-birds play other parts in Nos. 17, 23, 28, 51, 60, 68, 126, 312, 313, 316, 317, 318.
For other instances of talking-birds, cf. Am. Folk-lore Journal, i, 204; v, 126; Arabian Nights, "The Merchant, his Wife, and his Parrot" (also in Seven Wise Masters); Arch. Rev., March 1889, p. 26; Arnason, 430, 485; Asiatic Researches, vol. x, "Vasavadatta"; Bleek, Hottentot Fables, p. 65; Busk, F.-L. R,, p. 11, "Filagranata"; Caballero, ii, 42; Calcutta Rev., 1884, "Legends of Raja Rasálu" (see also Temple, Legends of the Punjab); Callaway, Zulu Folk-tales, pp. 53, 66, 72, 100, 106, 121, 130, 134, 135, 219, 362, 363; Campbell, i, 25, 219; ii, 288, 361; Casalis, Basutos, p. 339; Chambers, p. 66; Chaucer, "Manciple's Tale", and "Squire's Tale"; Comparetti, No. 2, "Il Pappagallo"; Corpus Poet. Boreale, i, 39, 131, 144, 157, 242, 255, 259, 306, 307, 359, 570; Cosquin, i, 186; Cox, Tales of Thebes and Argos, p. 175; Crane, It. Pop. Tales, pp. 17, 43, 75, 167-83, 200, 327, 341; Dasent, Norse Tales (3rd ed.), 59, 113, 289, 357, 371; Day, Lal Behari, Folk-tales of Bengal, No. 8; Dunlop, Hist. of Fiction, i, 428; Fleury, Litt. orale de la Basse Normandie, p. 123; Folk-lore Record, ii, 107-9, 192; iii, 183, 240, 245; Folk-lore Journal, i, 139; ii, 72, 241; iii, 291, 292; vi, 21, 31, 137-8, 194; Frere, O. D. D., pp. 14, 74, 80, 105; Gesta Romanorum, ch. 68; Grey, Polyn. Myth., pp. 57, 187; Grimm, Household Tales, Nos. 6, 17, 21, 25, 40, 47, 107, 191, etc.; Children's Legends, No. 6; Gubernatis, Z. M., ii, 174, 322; Household Stories from the Land of Hofer, p. 278; Ind. Ant., vol. iii, "The Minister and the Fool"; Vuk Karajich, No. 32; Katha-Sarit-Sagara; Leger, Contes pop. Slaves, No. 15, p. 235; Longfellow, Hiawatha, passim; Luzel, Legendes Chretiennes de la Basse Bretagne, i, 307; Maginogi of Branwen (see F.-L. Rec., v, 5); Mabinogion (Guest's), p. 376; Magyar Folk-Tales, pp. 322, 323, 421; Mahabharata, "Nala and Damayanti"; Melusine, vol. i, col. 374, 384, May 1887, "Le Chaperon Rouge"; Ortoli, p. 81; Pentamerone; Pitre, Fiabe nov. e racc. pop. Sic., vol. i, No. 21, p. 191; Ralston, Russian Folk-tales, pp. 66, 131; Revue celtique, iii, 365; Rivière, Contes pop. Kabyles, pp. 36, 53, 126, 188, 191, 211, 224, 243; Sagas from the Far East, pp. 90, 159, 162, 213, 215, 310; Satuja ja Tarinoita, ii, p. 2; Schneller, Nos. 26, 31, 32; The Seven Sages (Wright's ed.), p. 106; South African F.-L. Journal, I, iv, 74-9; I, vi, 138-45; Stokes, pp. 5, 149 ff.; Theal, Kaffir F.-L., pp. 29 ff., 63-6, 125. 141, 148 ff.; Thorpe, Yule-Tide Stories, pp. 35, 42, 64, 102, 125, 203, 220, 341, 451; North. Myth., vol. i, p. 97; La Tradition, ii, 1889, 33-40; Tuti Nama ("Tales of a Parrot"); Tylor, Early Hist., p. 347; Vernaleken, pp. 191, 207, 359; Visentini, Fiabe Mantovane, No. 23, p. 121; Webster, pp. 136-76; Weil, Biblical Legends of the Mussulmans, pp. 24, 38, 40, 42, 44, 45, 104, 152; Wide-Awake Stories, pp. 74-5, 139, 176, 205.
And see note 32.
IT may save other Students trouble to give the following list of books which have been found to contain no Cinderella variants:
H. N. ALLEN, M.D., Korean Tales. N. Y. and London, 1889.
ALPENBURG. See Mahlschedl.
H. APEL, Märchen und Sagen. 1838.
FELIX ARNAUDIN, Contes pop. Recuellis dans la Grande-lande, le Born, les Petits-Landes et le Marensin. Paris, Bordeaux, 1887.
Dr. B. ARNOLD, Griechische Sagen und Märchen. Gottingen, 1883.
RENE BASSET, Contes Arabes: Histoire des dix vizirs (Bakhtiar-Nameh). Paris, 1883.
RENE BASSET, Contes populaires Berberes. Paris, 1887.
REINHOLD BECHSTEIN, Altdeutsche, Märchen, Sagen und Legenden. Leipzig, 1863.
LUDWIG BECHSTEIN, Die Volkssagen, Märchen and Legenden des Kaiserstaates Oesterreich. Leipzig, 1841.
THEODOR BENTEY, Pantschatantra. Leipzig, 1859 (pp. 218, etc.: concerning grateful beasts in Indian and European tales),
Dr. A. BIRLINGER und Dr. M. R. BUCK, Sagen, Märchen, Volksaberglauben. Freiburg im Breisgau, 1861.
ANTON BIRLINGER, Nimm mich mit! Freiburg im Breisgau, 1871.
M. JEAN FRANCOIS BLADE, Contes et Proverbes populaires recueillis en Armagnac. Paris, 1867.
HENRY CARNOY, Litterature orale de la Picardie. Paris, 1883.
HENRY CARNOY, Contes Francais. Paris, 1885.
HENRY CARNOY, L'Algérie traditionnelle. 1884, etc.
CENAC-MONCAUT, Contes populaires de la Gascogne. Paris, 1861.
CENAC-MONCAUT, Litterature populaire de la Gascogne. Paris, 1868.
A. CERTEUX et E. CARNOY, L'Algerie traditionelle. Paris, 1884.
J. CHAPELOT, Contes Balzatois, 3rd ed. Paris, 1881.
ALEXANDRE CHODZKO, Contes des Paysans et des Patres Slaves. Paris, 1864.
ALEXANDRE CHODZKO, La Renaissance Litteraire. Contes populaires Tcheques. 1867.
L. CURTZE, Volksuberlieferungen aus dem Fustenthum Waldeck. Arolsen, 1860.
LAL BEHARI DAY. Folk-tales of Bengal.
ABEL DES MICHELS, Quelques Contes populaires annamites, traduits pour la premiere fois. Paris, 1886.
ABEL DES MICHELS, Chrestomathie Cochinchinoise. Paris, 1872.
ANTON DIETRICH, Russische Volksmärchen. Leipzig, 1831.
ENGELIEN. See Lahn.
AUGUST EY, Harzmärchenbuch, oder Sagen und Märchen aus dem Oberharze. Stade, 1862.
LEON FEER, Contes Indiens. Les Trentes-Deux Recits du Trone (Batris-Sinhasan). Paris, 1883.
BERANGER-FERAUD, Contes populaires de la Senegambie. Paris, 1885.
JEAN FLEURY, Litterature orale de la Basse-Normandie (Hague et Val-de-Saire). Paris, 1883.
FRIIS, Lappiske Eventyr.
GEORG VON GAAL, Märchen der Magyaren. Wien, 1822.
GEORG VON GAAL, Sagen und Novellen aus dem Magyarischen ubersetzt. Wien, 1834.
HUGO GERING, Islendzk AEventyri, Isländische Legenden, Novellen und Märchen. Halle, 1882.
A. J. GLINSKI, Bajarz Polski. Wilno, 1853.
WILHELM GOLDSCHMIDT, Russsische Märchen. Leipzig, 1883.
FRIEDRICH GOTTSCHALCK, Die Sagen und Volksmärchen der Deutchen. Halle, 1814 (1st vol. only; no märchen).
JOSEF HALTRICH, Deutsche Volksmärchen aus dem Sachsenlande, 3rd ed. Wien, 1882.
L. HAUPT und J. E. SCHMALER, Volkslieder der Wenden in der Ober- und Nieder-Lausitz (Märchen und Legenden). Grimma, 1841.
Jahrbuch furRomanische und Englische Litteratur. Vol. vii, 1866. "Volksmärchen aus Venetien." Gesammelt und herausgegeben von Georg Widter und Adam Wolf. Vol. viii, 1867. "Italienische Volksmärchen," von Reinhold Kohler.
HARRY JANNSEN, Märchen und Sagen des Estnischen Volkes. Leipzig, 1888.
KINGSCOTE, Mrs. HOWARD, and PANDIT NATESA SASTRI, Tales of the Sun, or Folk-lore of Southern India. London, 1890.
OTTO KNOOP, Volkssagen, Erzahlungen und Märchen aus dem Oestlichen Hinterpommern. Posen, 1885.
KNOWLES, Folk-tales of Kashmir. 1888.
MITE KREMNITZ, Roumanian Fairy Tales. New York, 1885.
MITE KREMNITZ, Rumanische Märchen. Leipzig, 1882.
FRIEDRICH KREUTZWALD, Ehstnische Märchen. Translated by F. Lowe. Halle, 1869.
A. KUHN, Märkische, Sagen und Märchen. Berlin, 1843.
A. KUHN, Sagen, Gebrauche und Märchen aus Westfalen. Leipzig, 1859.
KUHN und SCHWARTZ, Nord-deutsche Sagen, Märchen, und Gebräuche. Leipzig, 1848.
A. ENGELIEN und W. LAHN, Der Volksmund in der Mark Brandenburg. Berlin, 1868.
CALISTE DE LANGLE, Le Grillon, Legendes bretonnes. Paris. St. Petersburg, 1860.
L. LANGLES, Fables et Contes Indiens. Paris, 1790.
LOUIS LEGER, Contes populaires Slaves. Paris, 1882.
F. LOWE. See Kreutzwald.
ALOIS LUTOLF, Sagen, Bräuche, Legenden aus den fünf Orten, Lucern, Uri, Schwiz, Unterwaldan und Zug. Lucern, 1862.
MAHLSCHEDL (JOHANN NEPOMUK) RITTER VON ALPENBURG, Deutsche Alpensagen. Wien, 1861.
JOHANN GRAF MAILATH, Magyarische Sagen, Märchen und Erzählungen. Stuttgart und Tübingen, 1837.
J. J. MARCEL, Contes du Cheykh-El-Mohdy, traduits de l'Arabe d'après le manuscrit original. Paris, 1832.
G. MASPERO, Contes populaires de l'Egypte at Ancienne. Paris, 1882.
OSCAR MICHON, Contes et Legendes du Pays de France. Paris, 1886.
J. MILENOWSKY, Volksmärchen aus Böhmen. Breslau, 1853.
M. P. MILNE-HOME, Mamma's Black Nurse Stories. W. Indian Folk-lore. 1890.
J. C. POESTION, Lappländische Märchen. Wien, 1886.
STANISLAO PRATO, Quattro Novelline popolari Livornesi. Spoleto, 1880.
Dr. W. RADLOFF, Proben der Volkslitteratur der Turkischen Stamme Süd-Siberias, 5 pts. Petersburg, 1870-85.
ISABELO DE LOS REYES Y FLORENTINO, El Folk-lore Filipino. Manila, 1889.
ED. JEWITT ROBINSON, Tales and Poems of South India. London, 1885.
Romania. Vol. iv, 1875, pp. 194-252: "Chants et Contes populaires de la Gruyère," by J. Cornu. Vol. xii, 1883, pp. 566-84: "Contes de la Bigorre," by Dr. Dejeanne.
L. F. SAUVE. Le Folk-lore des Hautes-Vosges. Paris, 1889.
GEORG SCHAMBACH und WILHELM MULLER, Niedersächsische Sagen und Märchen. Göttingen, 1855.
SCHIEFNER, Tibetan Tales, translated by Ralston. 1882.
BERNHARDT SCHMIDT, Griechische Märchen, Sagen und Volkslieder. Leipzig, 1877.
PAUL SEBILLOT, Contes Provinces de France. Paris, 1884.
KARL SEIFART, Sagen, Märchen, Schwanke und Gebräuche aus Stadt und Stift Hildesheim. Göttingen, 1854.
CHARLES SELLERS, Tales from the Lands of Nuts and Grapes (Spanish and Portuguese Folk-lore). London, 1888.
EMIL SOMMER, Sagen, Märchen und Gebräuche aus Sachsen und Thuringen. Halle, 1846.
EMILE SOUVESTRE, Les Derniers Bretons. Paris, 1854.
AUGUST STOBER, Elsässisches Volksbuchlein. Strasburg, 1842.
L. STRACKERJAN, Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Herzogthum Oldenberg. Oldenburg, 1867.
MARK THORNHILL, Indian Fairy Tales. London, n. d.
EDM. VECKENSTEDT, Wendische Sagen, Märchen und Abergläubische Gebräuche. Graz, 1880.
JULIEN VINSON, Le Folklore du Pays Basque. Paris, 1883.
JOSEPH WENZIG, Westlawische Märchenschatz. Leipzig, 1857.
Dr. HEINRICH WLISLOCKI, Märchen and Sagen der Trans-silvänischen Zigeuner. Berlin, 1886.
Dr. HEINRICH WLISLOCKI, Vier Märchen der Trans-silvänischen Zeltzigeuner. Budapest, 1886.
W. WOLF, Deutche Hausmärchen. Göttingen. Leipzig, 1851.
W. WOLF, Deutsche Märchen und Sagen. Leipzig, 1845.
W. B. YEATS, Fairy and Folk-tales of the Irish Peasantry, edited and selected by. London, 1888.
IGN/.Z V. ZINGERLE, Sagen, Märchen und Gebräuche aus Tyrol. Innsbruck, 1859.
Mr. Kaarle Krohn has obligingly supplied the following particulars in response to enquiries concerning the Finnish name of the heroine (callcd indiscriminately by the translator "Cendrillon") in the variants which he has contributed:--
Cinderella is called in Finnish "Tuhkimus", or "Tuhkatytar"; Tuhka, pl. tuhki, signifying ashes, cinders, and mus being a personal ending, common to both genders. Thus the stupid third son also is called Tuhkimus. Tytar signifies daughter. In No. 105, on page 386, the name Cinderella is incorrect; the heroine should be called "Sikuri, sakari"; Sikuri meaning swineherd, and sakari being a variation. Sakari signifies the little finger (cf. No. 109). In No. 106, p. 387, the Finnish name for the heroine is "Poropuka", from poro, ashes, and puka, a girl, a servant-girl. In No 107, p. 388, the translator has incorrectly rendered the original by "Finette". The Finnish title is "Tuna" = Krisuna, i.e., Christine.
After the foregoing sheets were in the press, Mr. Feilberg discovered three more Cinderella variants in Aberg's Nylandska Folksagor, from which collection he had already sent me two stories. These three variants present no new features of special interest, but their contents may here be briefly summarised.
Op. cit., p. 15, No. 19, "Karin Traetjola" (Katie Wooden-Cloak). This story very closely resembles the Norse story under the same title, translated by Dasent (see No. 30, on p. 204). Ox suggests to princess, "If you are minded as I am, we will escape together." She mounts the ox and rides through the copper, silver, and gold forests. Then the ox is flayed [presumably for the same purpose as in the Norse tale]. Princess finds a wooden cloak behind the pigstye, dons it, and takes service as scullery-maid. She fetches water for the prince, who throws it in her face. When prince picks up the handkerchief she has dropped, she will not take it; he keeps it. She says she comes from Water-land. She fetches a towel; prince throws it at her. She drops her glove; comes from Towel-land. She fetches a comb, which the prince throws at her. Says she comes from Comb-land, and loses her shoe on the floor besmeared with tar. Prince will wed whomsoever the shoe fits. A bird sings. The shoe fits Karin, who instantly stands before prince in her glistening gold dress. Happy marriage.
Ibid., p. 20, No. 21, "Om skona Klara" ([a story] of beautiful Clara). Stepmother goes to church with her daughters, leaving heroine to cook the dinner. The grits for the dinner are scattered on the floor; heroine must carry water in a sieve; she must recover potatoes from the well, into which they have been thrown. An old man appears and offers to prepare the dinner while she goes to a large stone and strikes it with a bridle, whereupon a horse and beautiful clothes appear. She goes to church, where a count falls in love with her. Her horse is so swift that none can overtake her. On the third Sunday the count tries to catch her as she is about to mount; but he only gets hold of her shoe. Search is made for the owner of the shoe; Clara is hidden under a washing-tub. A bird sings, "The shoe is ful of blood; Clara, whom it fits, is under the tub." The count returns and discovers Clara. The old man appears, and bids her once more strike the stone. She does so, and gets lots of money and dresses. Happy marriage.
Ibid., p. 21, No. 22, "Den lilla Gullskovn" (The Little Golden Shoe). This story opens like the preceding. Grits are thrown upon the floor; pease on the dunghill; potatoes into the well. Heroine stands crying; old man comforts her, promises to prepare the dinner, gives her dress and horse, and sends her to church. Each time, on leaving, she mounts from a stone outside the church. On the third occasion this stone is smeared with tar, and she loses her shoe. A young man secures it, and will wed whomsoever it fits. Stepsister cuts a bit off her foot and puts on the shoe. The old man meets the betrothed pair on the road, and says: "She is a false bride: look for the right one!" The young man returns and finds the heroine.
Mr. Nutt communicates a story, but unfortunately too late for it to be included amongst the other variants. It is of extreme interest, showing (1) the animal parentage of the heroine in most uncompromising form, and (2) the blood-relationship of the heroine and hero. I have therefore tabulated it fully. This story, literally translated from the Gaelic, was collected by Mr. Kenneth MacLeod in Inverness-shire shortly before 1886:--
King has a young daughter by a sheep, and also a wife and children. Wife sees king going to house of sheep, of whom she is very jealous, and sends one of her own daughters to see what he does there. King does not notice girl, but sheep sees her, and puts her to sleep with rhyme:
When girl awakes the king has left, and she tells mother that she did not see that the sheep, the poor creature, got anything from the king. Next day queen sees king going to sheep's house, and sends a daughter after him. Sheep notices the girl, and puts her to sleep with same rhyme. Girl has seen nothing. The third day, when a girl is sent to spy, sheep begins to sing:
forgetting to charm both eyes, and the girl sees the king giving the sheep many good things, and reports to mother. When king returns, his wife says that the sheep must be killed; it is vain for king to ask whether any other sheep will not do as well. Knowing she is to be slain, sheep calls her daughter and bids her preserve all her bones; even should a dog eat one, she must put her hand down dog's throat to recover it; then she must bury them at a certain spot, and after five years1 sheep will revive as a beautiful princess. Daughter does as bidden; she dwells by herself in sheep's house. Five years afterwards king's son and heir returns, and there is to be a three days' feast. Sheep's daughter asks king's children about it; but they only beat her. On the night of the feast sheep comes to life as a beautiful princess. She dresses her daughter in splendid clothes of silk and gold, and sends her to the feast, bidding her return at a certain hour, for then her finery will fall off. There is no one present as beautiful as sheep's daughter; king's son cannot leave her side the whole night, and when she suddenly disappears, none can tell whether the heavens or the earth have swallowed her. The second night the princess clothes her still more beautifully, so that there is none at the ball like her. She vanishes from the prince's side as before. The third night she is still more finely clad, so that there could be none at the ball like her. Prince determines not to lose sight of her, but when the hour arrives she disappears, leaving behind her in her hurry one of her golden slippers. Prince keeps it, and proclaims throughout the country that he will wed whomsoever the slipper will fit. Every woman in the land comes to try, but only one can wear it, and she has had her big toe cut off. One day a pet bird of the prince's begins to sing, and twice repeats:
They send over for that bonny girl, and the slipper fits her exactly. So the king's son marries the sheep's daughter, and they live happy ever after.
Mr. Nutt sends me the following particulars of two Irish stories, to which he attaches some importance in connection with the present study. They are found in Mr. O'Grady's recently published Silva Gaedelica.
The first (op. cit., vol. ii, p. 368) is of Eochaidh Mughmedoin's sons. Eochaidh was king of Ireland in the fourth century, and had four sons by his queen, Mongfhionn (the Long-fair-haired One), and one, Niall, by a captive Saxon princess, Cairenn. Before the birth of Niall his mother was kept in a position of great hardship by the queen, who made her draw well-water for all the household. Niall was born in the dog-kennel, but became ultimately the chief of his brethren. He is later on the hero of a transformed-hag story.
This story is from the Book of Ballymote, a 14th century MS., but it was probably redacted in the early is 11th century, as it refers in contemporary wise to a personage of the late 10th century.
The second story (op. cit., ii, 428) is about Raghallach, the seventh century king of Connaught, of whom it was foretold that he should be slain by his own offspring. Accordingly, when his queen bears a child, she gives it to a swineherd to kill, but he takes pity on the child, and puts her with a recluse. She grows up to be the fairest maid in Ireland. Raghallach, hearing tell of her, and not knowing her to be his own daughter, seeks her to wife. Mairenn (the queen) runs away; the saints of Ireland fast upon Raghallach (an archaic touch; "fasting upon" was, in Aryan Ireland, as in Aryan India, the recognised legal method of bringing an offender to book) and he is killed by churls in a chance brawl (i.e., the most disgraceful form of death for an Irish king) whilst stag- hunting.
The MS. in which this story is found is of the 15th Century, and the story is imbedded in annals which cannot be earlier than the end of the ninth century. It probably belongs to the 11th or 12th century.
1: Mr. McLeod forgets time. A year
and a day?
Cox, Marian Roalfe. Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes, abstracted and tabulated. London: David Nutt for the Folklore Society, 1893.
While the original text of this book is out of copyright, the special formatting and compilation available on SurLaLune Fairy Tales is copyrighted. Be aware that while the original content has been honored, page numbering, footnote numbering, redesigned charts, links, and other aspects are unique to this site's version of the text. Use at your own risk. For private and fair use educational purposes only.